Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

The Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (ISSN 2330-5142) presents papers that cover all aspects of the management and conservation of inland, estuarine, and marine fisheries and wildlife. It aims to provide a forum where fisheries and wildlife managers can find innovative solutions to the problems facing our natural resources in the 21st century. The Journal welcomes manuscripts that cover scientific studies, case studies, and review articles on a wide range of topics of interest and use to fish and wildlife managers, with an emphasis on the southeastern United States.


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A heavily hunted turkey (Meleagris gal!opavo osceola) population was monitored by radio-tracking during 6 hunting seasons. In the sample of 125 radioinstrumented birds, there was no difference in the rate of harvest of turkeys that had been transplanted to the area and those that had been captured on the area, or between adults and juveniles or between males and females. Nearly all harvest in the sample occurred during the first week in the 3 hunting seasons that both sexes were legal game. Harvest was more evenly distributed throughout the 7-week-Iong season when only gobblers were legal. Instrumented birds were not crippled and unretrieved, because cripples were retrieved by other hunters. Movement behavior of the turkeys was not greatly affected by hunting, but turkeys hid from hunters at times.

A total of 112 standardized counts of roosting ducks were made at 4 roosts within 2 typical northeastern North Carolina swamps from Sepember-March, 1972-73 and 1973-74. Zero to 60 ducks were observed per count with an overall average of 7.5. Approximately 97% of all ducks observed were wood ducks (Aix sponsa). No differences in numbers of roosting ducks were detected between years or swamps in spite of major watershed differences. However roost site differences within a swamp and several year interactions were important. A significant cubic relationship over time was noted in the average number of ducks observed per count with a peak occurring in late October and early November. Approximately 8% of all ducks observed during the counts were singles and 70% were in flocks of greater than 2 birds. Over 96% of the ducks arrived at roosts after sunset during the November-January hunting-season period whereas overall only 72% of the ducks arrived after sunset.

Two-year studies were conducted in 3 earthen raceways (160 m x 6 m x 2 m). One raceway was maintained at ambient water temperature, I had a heated floating plume over 60% of the surface, and 1 was maintained at near heated water discharge temperature. Average water temperatures ranging up to 36.7 C were not lethal for any fish species tested. With the possible exception of threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) 110 difference in long-term survival of any species was detected, but when the entire population was considered as a whole, survival of fishes confined to the highest temperatures was reduced. Growth rates of largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) and spotted basses (M. punctatus), channel catfish (Ictaluras punctatus), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus, and gizzard shad (D. cepedianum) in at least 1 of the heated water treatments exceeded growth in the control. Total standing crop and growth rates of bluegill (L.

Techniques were investigated for growing rainbow trout, Salmo gairdnerii Richardson, from fingerlings to market size during the winter months in a recirculation, flowing water fish culture system where channel catfish, lctalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) are grown in summer. Trout stocked having a mean weight of 0.1 Ib had a mean weight of 0.7 Ib in approximately 100 days with a feed conversion ratio of 1.29 to I. Survival of the fish was 82%. Water quality parameters and control of parasite infestations during the culture period are also discussed.

Results from experimental studies conducted on 2 southeastern game farms showed that the Indian Red Junglefowl (Gallus g. murghl) was a capable reservoir host for blackhead disease (histomoniasis, enterohepatitis), and indicated that some junglefowl released in range of the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) were carriers of blackhead. Since blackhead has been a major disease problem in southeastern wild turkey populations, the disease potential should be carefully considered prior to any future releases of junglefowl.

Spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellata) populations in Texas bays were randomly sampled with 183 m long gill nets November 1975 through March 1976 and November 19'76 through March 1977. Catch rates in areas closed to commercial netting for spotted seatrout were about twice as high as those from areas open to netting. There was no difference between the mean total length of spotted scatrout from closed areas and trout from open areas. Closed areas produced about twice as many red drum as open areas. No generalizatilln could be made about the size of red drum and whether they were caught in open or closed areas. Apparently, the effect of commercial netting on these species is local. When spotted seatrout and red drum are removed from netted areas, populations in adjacent non netted areas are not appreciably affected.

The roller-net, a new fisheries sampling gear incorporating features common to the pushnet and bag seine, is described. The roller-net is compared with nearshore gear types, including pushnet, bag seine, and minnow seine, in beachfront, grassbed, barren sand-shell, and soft organic substrates. The roller-net is effective in sampling nekton from grassbed and barren sand-shell substrates, but ineffective in characterizing beachfront and soft organic substrates.

The abundance of various species of wildlife in marshes and ponds influenced by weirs was measured and compared to similar data collected on non-wetTed or control areas from January through December, 1974. Weirs were constructed in marsh drainage systems and held water levels in ponds and bayous several inches below the elevation of the adjacent marsh; however, control areas were subjected to natural tidal influences. Greater duck, coot, and non-game bird usage was found in ponds influenced by weirs, especially during low water periods occurring in the winter. Field data indicated that weirs had no measurable effects on fur bearer or small mammal populations, with the exception of swamp rabbits. Whether populations were high or low was generally independent of the influence of weirs in the areas surveyed. Survey methods most reliable were aerial bird counts and ground counts of muskrat beds and nutria trails.

Short description of both pieces of legislation highlighting the similarities and differences; the strengths and limitations of each. Based on recent National Marine Fisheries Service's experience concludes that both can be used in a mutually supportive manner to benefit fish and wildlife resources.

Malachite green, potassium permanganate, salt, formalin, Dylox, Furanace, antimycin A, Noxfish, copper sulfate, and Diquat were tested to determine 96-hour LCso values for the glass eel stage ofthe American eel, Anguilla rostrata(Lesueur). Static acute toxicity tests were conducted at 22 C using deionized water reconstituted to a hardness of 40-48 mgfl, an alkalinity of 30-35 mg/ I and a pH of 7.2-7.6. The calculated 96-hour LCso values for the chemicals are: malachite green 0.27 mg/I; potassium permanganate 3.06 mgfl; salt 17.88 gfl; formalin 83.96 mg/I; Dylox 1.31 mgfl; Furanace 0.77 mg/I; antimycin A 0.09 I-lg/I; Noxfish 15.25 I-lgfl; copper sulfate 2.54 mgfl; and Diquat 39.02 mg/l.

The use of tall grass prairie singing sites and associated diurnal habitat by American woodcock was analyzed on the Oklahoma State University Ecology Preserve near Stillwater, Payne County, Oklahoma. The effect on woodcock use of breeding display habitat via artificially creating singing sites by mowing was observed in conjunction with an extensive study of display behavior. Woodcock preferred sparsely vegetated singing sites, regardless of their floral composition, aspect, shape, size, area, perimeter, soil texture, and pH. Preferred singing sites were well drained, had moderate slopes and were close to water or diurnal cover. Distances between singing grounds ranged from 150 to 300m. The mowing of plots proved successful in setting back succession and creating new display sites. The essential components ofdiumal habitat were moderately dense over story and understory, adequate ground cover, and moist loamy soil.

Ultrasonic tracking was conducted on 11 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui Lacepede) in Center Hill Reservoir, TN from 24 May 1973 to 25 July 1974. Transmitters which had an average life of 30.4 days, were implanted in the body cavity and were a successful tool for studying fish movement and behavior. Factors observed were "homing" behavior of displaced fish, horizontal movement, distance ranged offshore, depth ranges, water temperature, and habitat preference. Also determined were correlations between fish movement and water temperature, barometric pressure, water turbidity, water levels, percentage cloud cover, solunar periods, and creel census data. The effects of noise and artificial light on smallmouth bass behavior were noted. Increased movement and activity were associated with water surface temperature between ll.l and 23.9 C. Only surface temperature of the water was found to be significantly related to rate of fish movement.

Neosho smallmouth bass were collected from 1962-64 in tributaries of the Arkansas River in northwest Arkansas and southern Missouri. Counts were made of dorsal spines and soft-rays, anal spines and soft-rays, pectoral fin-rays and lateral-line scales. The data were compared with that for intergrade smallmouth from other drainages in Arkansas and with data given by Castro (1963) and Hubbs and Bailey (1940). Neosho smallmouth in this study had significantly higher mean counts than those reported in 1940. Each stream having higher counts had been stocked with the intergrade form of smallmouth from the White River in Arkansas.

Supplementary patrol was used effectively in the Beaumont district. One warden was assigned to replace officers on a temporary basis when they were unable to perform their duties. The program was well-received by local citizens, and was 55 percent efficient.

The susceptibility of blue catfish, (lctalurusfurcatus), and reciprocal channel (l. punctatus) x blue catfish hybrids to channel catfish virus (CCV) was determined through several methods of exposure. Mortalities of blue catfish, when injected intraperitoneally with CCV, were similar to what would be expected with channel catfish. Histopathology of CCV-injected blue catfish did not deviate from that of similarly infected channel catfish. Infection of blue catfish and the hybrids by swabbing the gills, dipping fish in a virus solution, or by cohabitation with CCV-diseased fish were primarily ineffective. It is concluded that blue catfish and hybrids of channel catfish x blue catfish are as equally susceptible as channel catfish to injection of CCV but the blue catfish are refractive to the virus by m9re natural routes of transmission.

In 1960 when the Georgia Legislature considered what agency or agencies were most properly prepared to perform this function, several were considered. The agency favored by most during the initial phase of debate was the Department of Public Safety. The most constructive argument was that they were a well organized, trained and supervised organization. It was reasoned that such an organization could quickly assimilate specialized training outside of their normal duties and, therefore, could assume the additional responsibilities with a minimum of delay. Furthermore, the agency had a registration record capability established for the purpose of licensing drivers. Other agencies such as Parks and Recreation and Game and Fish were considered. It was obvious that these latter two agencies had a vested interest in this mission and function. Furthermore, they possessed the capability for the same reason used in the case of the Department of Public Safety.

Thomas Hill Reservoir, built by the Associated Electric Cooperative, is located in north central Missouri in a soft coal strip-mine area. Its waters provide cooling for a steam-powered electric generating plant. Fishing pressure averaged 18.2 hours per acre per year during the study. There was a yearly average of 4.9 fishing trips per acre. Anglers averaged 3.9 fish per trip. The average yearly harvest was 21.7 fish, or 13.5 pounds per acre. About 37 percent of all fish caught were taken in the warm-water discharge area mostly during winter. The relationships between angler use, angler success, and fishing pressure and the annual average Secchi disk reading were an important finding of this study. Linear correlations calculated for these paramenters were significant to the five percent level (95 percent confidence).

According to the American Association for Conservation Information, 44 states now publish magazines that may be loosely categorized as "conservation" magazines. The range of specific types within this broad category is fantastic. The group includes rather technical publications on wildlife and fisheries management techniques and research projects, "slick" promotional and travel magazines, and those stressing the environmentalist approach. Almost without exception, they share one rather questionable quality — they are published without the benefit of knowledge of who the readers are. A number of questions can be applied with equal validity to any publication or group of publications. Who reads it? Why do they read it? How valuable is it to them? What do they particularly like or dislike about it? From the readers' point of view, what can be done to improve it?