R. L. Kirkpatrick

Ruffed Grouse Food Availability in Southwestern Virginia

We initiated a pilot study of fall and winter ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) habitat use, forage availability, and forage-based carrying capacities for an area in southwestern Virginia. Flush counts indicated grouse densities were low and that grouse preferred clearcuts in the fall. Fall forages appeared adequate to support moderate grouse populations. High quality forages (mast and herbaceous leaves) were scarce during the winter and resulted in low carrying capacity estimates. Evergreen forages were abundant in both seasons but toxic properties likely limited their utility.

Year
1992

Application of a Habitat Suitability Index Model for Wintering Black Ducks

The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model (Lewis and Garrison 1984) for wintering American black ducks (Anas rubripes) was applied during 1985 and 1986 at Chincoteague, Virginia. HSI values of 0.66 and 0.56 were obtained during the 2 respective years. We suggested improvements in field methods for estimating biological variables. Modification of 1 variable (V6) and inclusion of a new variable (proportion of total land and water represented by saltmarsh, Vg) were proposed to improve model output.

Year
1989

Evaluating Nutritional Status of White-Tailed Deer Using Fat Indices

Femurs, mandibles, and kidneys with attached perirenal fat were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in controlled and field studies to examine the use of fat indices for assessing nutritional status. Eleven fawns were fed formulated rations differing in energy content for 4 weeks. The kidney fat index (KFI) was significantly lower for fawns fed low energy (LE) diets compared to high energy (HE) diets. Femur marrow (FMF) and mandibular marrow fat (MMF) levels were unaffected by diet. In another experiment, 9 fawns were fed diets differing in energy and protein content...

Year
1982

Estimating Carcass Fat Levels in Ruffed Grouse From Wing Fat

A technique for estimation of carcass fat levels in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) from wing fat levels is evaluated. The utility of this technique was investigated because many :Btate wildlife agencies annually collect grouse wings for purposes of age determination and hence wings are readily available. Mean wing fat (percent ether extract) levels were not significantly different than carcass fat levels in grouse collected in fall and winter. Significant differences were found between wing and carcass fat levels in spring (P < 0.10) and summer (P < 0.01) collected birds. Despite...

Year
1981

Comparative Food Habits of Two Cottontail Rabbit Populations in Virginia

Food habits of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were determined by microscopic analysis of stomach contents from 2 physiographic regions of Virginia during 4 seasons of the year. The area examined in the mountain region (Radford Army Ammunition Plant [RAAP)) contained a high population of rabbits whereas the area studied in the piedmont region (Fort Pickett) was an area with a history of relatively low rabbit populations for the past 2 decades. Food habits of rabbits from the 2 areas were different; rabbits from Fort Pickett subsisted on much greater quantities of forbs...

Year
1981

Gonadal And Hormonal Characteristics Of Juvenile Female Mourning Doves In Virginia

Trapped or hunter-harvested juvenile female mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in Virginia were examined for reproductive activity during the late summer and fall of 1975, 1976, and 1977. Body, ovary, and oviduct weights, diameter of the 3 largest follicles in the ovary, presence or absence of eggs in the reproductive tract, and presence or absence of crop gland activity were recorded for all trapped juveniles. Blood samples also were collected for estradiol and progestin analysis. All pertinent reproductive data, excluding body weights and blood samples, were collected from hunter-...

Year
1980

Applicability of Basic Physiology and Nutrition Research to Practical Wildlife Management

Past emphasis on wildlife research with immediate applicability has resulted in good management progress with minimum effort. However, this emphasis may now be impeding management progress. Most of the "easy" answers may be known already. Wildlife scientists and managers should recognize the need for basic physiological and nutritional research to improve future management procedures. Examples are given ofrecent knowledge concerning wild species that have been obtained through such basic research, the possible implications ofthis knowledge, and the need for more "in depth" research on the...

Year
1975

Ovarian Follicular and Related Characteristics of White-Tailed Deer as Influenced By Season and Age in the Southeast

Ovaries, anterior pituitary glands and pineal glands of 206 white-tailed deer collected from 6 areas of the Southeast over a 3 year period during the four seasons of the year were examined. Ovaries were sliced and all follicular and luteal structures ≥1 mm were measured and counted. Significant seasonal effects were found on ovarian weight, average diameter of the 2 largest fullicles, and anterior pituitary weights. Follicular development was greatest in the summer and fall seasons although large follicles were present on ovaries during all seasons. Ovarian weights were greatest during the...

Year
1974