Edwin D. Michael

Habitat Diversity and Small Mammal Populations in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

Small mammals were trapped annually in Canaan Valley, West Virginia, from 1978 to 1993. Canaan Valley is located at 1,000 m elevation in the Appalachian Mountains and contains an unusual interspersion of ecological communities. Snap-trapping was conducted for 4 consecutive nights each September in each of 11 habitat types: alder, aspen, conifer, grassland, grassland/ecotone, hayfield, young hardwoods, mature hardwoods, muskeg, shrub/ecotone, and spiraea. The most abundant species captured were deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, 2.0 captures/ 100 trapnights), short-tailed shrew (Blarina...


Population Dynamics of the Canaan Valley West Virginia Canada Goose Population

The Canaan Valley, West Virginia, Canada goose (Branta canadensis) flock is a discrete population that resulted from birds released in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This flock is the only flock in West Virginia that regularly migrates out of the state during winter and returns for nesting. It remains discrete even though other populations exist within 27 km to the east and west. This is the southernmost migratory flock of geese in the eastern United States. Helicopter surveys were conducted from 1982 to 1993 to estimate population size, and banding was conducted from 1977 to 1993 to...


Survival and Seasonal Movements During River Otter Restoration Efforts in West Virginia

During 5 February-1 April 1987 we released 13 (8 males:5 females) radio-equipped river otters (Lutra canadensis) into the West Fork River, Lewis County, West Virginia. Survival through 4 November 1987 was 56.7% (N = 75). After 10 months, dispersal extended 27.2 km upstream and 23.4 km downstream from the release site. Seasonal movements for the surviving otters varied from 7.1 km to 57.4 km for females (N = 2) and 11.1 km to 52.0 km for males (N = 5). Inter- and intrasexual ranges overlapped 0%-100% each season. Movements illustrated the importance of available refugia on the stream system...


White-tailed Deer Use of Small-Area Fuelwood Cuttings in West Virginia

Six slash-disposal treatments were applied to 24 O.05-ha plots in a mixed hardwood forest in northern West Virginia to determine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of small fuelwood cuts. Fuelwood harvest resulted in an increase in woody stems during the first year following cutting, but there was no significant effect by type of slash-disposal treatment on number of stems that regenerated. Deer use, as evidenced by pellet groups, differed among treatment plots, yet no consistent preference for specific treatments was detected. All treatment plots, except improvement cut plots...


Response of Deer, Hare, and Grouse to Whole-Tree Harvesting in Central Appalachia

The effects of whole-tree harvesting upon white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) , snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) , and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) were studied from 1978 through 1981 in southcentral West Virginia. Transect sampling by recording fecal pellets was conducted in mature forest and in clearcuts ranging from 0 to 8 years of age. Use of clearcuts created by whole-tree harvesting was compared to use of those created by conventional clearcutting. Deer used whole-tree clearcuts more than conventional clearcuts, but hare used conventional clearcuts more than whole-tree...


Management Of Highways For Wildlife In The Central Appalachians

A 10-year study of interrelationships between highways and wildlife was conducted to determine potential management options and to identify areas where further research is needed. Management of highways for wildlife is divided into 3 phases: geographic location, design, and maintenance. Specific recommendations are: (1) create wetlands adjacent to highways by using highway base as a dam, (2) design bridges to attract birds such as swallows, but to repel birds such as starlings, (3) mow cover crops at 3-5 year intervals, (4) seed woody species, using native plants, at time of construction...


Observations On European Wild Boars Released in Southern West Virginia

Thirty pen-reared European wild hogs (Sus scrofa) were released in 1971 in southwestern West Virginia with the purpose of establishing a huntable population. The stocking involved construction of pens in a remote area followed by artificial feeding and gradual release of sows that had recently farrowed. Size of release area and sow-piglet introductions are considered major factors resulting in establishment of a wild population. Wild boars have produced litters annually and are presently occupying 130 sq km. Observations from monitoring activities on reproduction, foods, seasonal movements...


Effects Of Highway Construction On Game Animals

Distributions of game animals in relation to a four-lane, limited-access highway were monitored before, during, and after highway construction along Appalachian Highway 48 in northern West Virginia from 1971 to 1975. All game species monitored were affected as a result of habitat loss due to the highway itself occupying land but none exhibited a chance in distribution due to highway construction. Only the wild turkey (Meleagris gal!opavo) seemed to avoid the highway.


The Role of Access in Hunter Use of Canaan Valley, West Virginia

The purpose of this study was to determine how an area of low quality unmaintained access affects hunter satisfaction and use of the Canaan Valley in northeastern West Virginia. The 10,120 ha (25,000 acres) northern half of the valley supported a high, well distributed population of hunters during the 1973-74 hunting season. The valley Ooor, where access is the most difficult, supported 67 hunter days per 40.5 ha (100 acres) and the mountainside supported 63 hunter days per 40.5 ha (100 acres). Approximately 10 percent (160) of the hunters using the valley during the] 972-73 season were...


Sex Ratio And Group Composition In White-Tailed Deer

Seasonal vanatlOns in sex ratio and group compositIOn of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied on the Welder Refuge, Texas. Group size varied from 3.2 to 7.3 with a mean of 4.9. Sex ratio (0 to <;> ) varied from 27:100 to 42:100 with a mean of 35:100. Group composition also varied throughout the year, due to variations in reproductive behavior. Data indicate that total counts are best conducted in April but sex ratios are best determined in August. The purpose of this paper is to describe the seasonal associations of whitetailed deer with emphasis on evening feeding...