Kenneth G. Johnson

Evaluation and Use of Precast Wildlife Crossings by Florida Wildlife

We studied use of a new, less expensive design of wildlife crossing to determine the acceptance of the structure by wildlife. We documented wildlife use of 2 precast concrete wildlife crossings from 27 March 1995 to 30 June 1996 on State Road (SR) 29 in southwest Florida. Two additional crossings of a different design were monitored on Interstate (I)-75 for comparison. Over 1,000 photographs were taken of >20 species of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans using those 4 wildlife crossings. The SR 29 structures were utilized by Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi), black bears (...


Effects of Pine Regeneration on Vegetation, Deer Hunting, and Harvest

Regeneration of 10,000 ha of mixed forest to loblolly pine over 14 years resulted in extensive vegetative changes. One hundred forty-five herbaceous and 68 woody plant species were recorded from the study area. Forty-nine percent of herbaceous species encountered were forbs. Grasses were the most dominant plant group with 25.2% coverage at the initiation of the study. Mean percent coverage of all herbaceous plant groups increased through year 2, then gradually decreased. Plant coverage increased for all groups except woody vines following a controlled burn in year 11. Highest coverage of...


Bedding Behavior of Black Bears in Tennessee

Two distinct patterns of bedding behavior of black bears (Ursus americanus) were observed; all summer beds (N =25) were surface depressions which required no preparation and all winter beds (N =9) were elaborately constructed nest-type structures. Seven summer beds were depressions in association with fallen trees, 3 were at the base of large standing trees, and 1 was adjacent to a large rock. Fourteen beds were not in the immediate vicinity of similar structures. Eight summer beds were in game trails. Eight of 9 winter beds were adjacent to obviously selected structures such as large logs...


Reproductive Biology of European Wild Hogs in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Based on 162 European wild hogs (Sus scrota) collected from 1971 to 1973 in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the male: female ratio was 52: 48 and the age composition consisted of 52% of the hogs being <12 months, 21% 12-26 months, and 27% >26 months of age. No sex difference in collection by trapping and shooting occurred (0.1

26 months old were more likely to be shot (75.0%) than trapped (25.0%) (P < 0.005). Males attained puberty in 7 to 12 months and females in 5 - 8 months; both were physiologically capable of breeding year-round. Farrowing activity occurred...


A Survey of Procedures to Determine Relative Abundance of Furbearers in the Southeastern United States

A phone questionnaire was used to determine the extent furbearer population surveys are used in the Southeast, describe the procedures used, identify problems and future directions, and quantitatively rank important considerations in using scent-station techniques based on an opinion survey. Eleven of 16 states conduct annual statewide surveys of furbearer population trends (10 of 11 were scent-station surveys) at an average cost of $26,095. There was no consistency among state surveys and most surveyed biologists (11 of 12) believed consistency was important but questions arose regarding...


Marking Techniques For Black Bears

Ear tagging and lip tattooing techniques were evaluated from 172 and 91 recaptured black bears (Ursus americanus), respectively. No significant differences (P < 0.5) in tag losses were detected between metal (21%) and plastic (17%) roto cattle tags. The use of 2 metal tags may increase the chance of long-term retention of these more durable tags. Tattoos exhibited good durability and legibility when properly applied on the smooth part at the side of the upper lip close to the gum. Multiple marks (2 ear tags, lip tattoo, and recording natural markings and abnormalities) should be used...


Denning Behavior Of Black Bears In The Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Denning behavior of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park was studied using motion sensitive radio-collars. All radioinstrumented bears (n = 29) entered dens and exhibited periods of decreased activity in the predenning and postdenning periods (n = 20). Denning behavior was characterized by a reduction in sensitivity, with females being more lethargic than males. Female bears departed fall ranges earlier (P