Texas initiated antlerless white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting in 1953. The harvest of antlerless deer is regulated by permits issued to landowners, who distribute the permits to hunters utilizing their property. Since the inception of this program, approximately 1.4 million antlerless deer have been harvested in Texas. In 1979, 290,120 antlerless deer permits where issued to 25,201 landowners, resulting in a harvest of 89,225 antlerless deer. The harvest comprised 5% of the adult female segment of the population. The approximate cost of administering the permit system was $261,400.00 in 1979, representing a cost of $2.93 for each antlerless deer harvested.