W. P. Smith

Nondestructive Quantitative Sampling for Freshwater Mussels in Variable Substrate Streams

Unionid mussels were sampled in the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River, Tennessee and Kentucky, from July to October 1988 with a chain grid of 10 1-m2 quadrats. The chain grid was used to define 100-m2 areas along the stream bed by repeatedly moving the 10-m2 rectangle upstream. Within each 100-m2 area, 30 systematically selected quadrats were sampled to estimate density and size class distribution of mussel populations. Sampling variance within grids reflected the patchiness of mussel distribution and increased with substratum heterogeneity; number of mussels encountered per quadrat...


Evaluation of an Outdoor Facility for Maintaining Wild Raccoons

Up to 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor) were live-trapped and held within covered wire cages for about 1 month each season during June 1988-August 1989. Animals were fed 250-300 g of dry dog food daily and provided water ad libitum; percent change in body mass during captivity was used to evaluate the response of raccoons to the holding facility and maintenance protocol. Change in body mass at release varied from - 0.6 kg to 1.6 kg. Daily percent change averaged 2.7%; the largest total percent change in body mass of 70%. Percent change in body mass was independent of retention time, previous...


Survival and Nesting Success of Late Winter Wild Turkey Introductions

During late winter 1988 and 1989, 18 radio-marked eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) hens released into Natchez Trace State Park, Forest and Wildlife Management Area (Natchez Trace), and 20 radio-marked Natchez Trace (resident) hens released at the capture site were monitored continuously throughout the nesting and brooding season. Introduced turkeys experienced greater mortality than residents, especially during the 30-day period following release (P <0.05). Introduced birds displayed more frequent and greater daily movements than resident hens. Spring home ranges of...


Environmental Criteria for Nest Site Selection by Mississippi Sandhill Cranes

Seven environmental parameters were estimated at each nest site and 2 or 3 (per nest) systematically selected control (non-nest) sites during pre-nesting (MarchApril) and post-nesting (May-July) 1983 and 1984 on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge. Discriminant analysis revealed percentage of vegetation at the nest site was the only variable that differed between nests and control sites during pre-nesting and post-nesting periods for both years. Ground cover of water and water depth next to the nest differed from control sites during post-nesting 1983 and prenesting...