Raymond R. McMaster

10 Years of Deer Management on White River National Wildlife Refuge

When the 113.000 acre White Rive National Wildlife Refuge was established on September 5, 1935, very few white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were present. With protection, the deer herd increased and by 1947 deer were firmly established. By 1957, the bottomland area was overstocked and browsing and desirable forest reproduction was heavy. Overpopulation continued until public hunts began in 1961. Due to obvious overpopulation, the number of hunters were unrestricted from 1961 through 1964. Beginning in 1965, controlled hunting was initiated to achieve deer herd management on a...