Michael Stockdale

Commercial Broadhead Effect and Quantitative Analysis of Broadhead vs. Firearm Wounds in White-tailed Deer

Trace metal analysis of commercially produced broadheads was conducted to determine the background level of copper and lead contained on the surface of the broadhead following manufacturing. The level of copper and lead from these broadheads was then compared to known copper and lead values from white-tailed deer to determine if inserting a broadhead into the wound tract would influence the quantitative analysis of the wound tract. Although inserting a broadhead into a firearm wound orifice post-mortem changes the morphological appearance of the wound orifice, it does not influence the...


English and American Wildlife Law: Lessons from the Past

English wildlife law has been well documented for over 1,500 years. Since the Middle Ages the English have tried implementing, at one time or another, almost every law that could be imagined for the taking and harvesting of wildlife. The penalty for violations of these laws have ranged from a fine, prison, mutilation, transportation, to even death. Despite all these laws and draconian punishments, poaching still persisted. Before we propose or try to change any of our current laws, we should review the past and see if this new law or change has failed or worked earlier. Let us ask the...


Wildlife Forensics: Past, Present and Future

The enforcement of wildlife laws becomes more complex and complicated each day and requires the wildlife officer to use every available tool to perform his job. Wildlife forensic techniques provide scientific methods to supplement the wildlife officer's work in the field. Wildlife forensic techniques provide methods necessary to answer law enforcement problems which remained unanswered in the past but have been answered today, and to solve tomorrow's problems with answers which do not exist today. Wildlife forensics is not a panacea for the wildlife officer, however, it is another tool in...


Forensic Metal Detectors for Nontoxic Shot Enforcement in Migratory Waterfowl

The enforcement of the nontoxic shot regulation for migratory waterfowl has been a continuing problem for wildlife officers due to the problem of apprehending hunters with lead shot shells in their possession. The specialized forensic metal detector allows the wildlife officer to inspect the hunter's daily bag either in the blind or at his vehicle and to determine in the birds contain lead shot pellets, steel shot pellets, no shot pellets (neutral), or a combination of lead shot pellets and steel shot pellets. The forensic metal detector has made a definite difference in the compliance...