Jacob L. Bowman

Survival and Cause-specific Mortality of Adult Male White-tailed Deer Managed Under the Quality Deer Management Paradigm

Quality deer management (QDM) advocates the protection of younger-age white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) bucks, but the subsequent survival of these animals remains unknown. We conducted a study to investigate the impact and importance of harvest and non-harvest mortality factors on adult male white-tailed deer in Mississippi on areas managed under QDM. We captured 408 deer and fitted 238 adult bucks with radio collars from February 1990 until January 1997. During the study, we documented 185 mortalities, which were used to estimate survival and cause-specific mortality rates....

Year
2007

Efficacy of a Controlled Hunt for Managing White-tailed Deer on Fair Hill Natural Resource Management Area, Cecil County, Maryland

As exurbia becomes more dominant in our landscape, the number of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in parklands surrounded by housing increases and creates new challenges in deer management. Traditional harvest regimes often are not possible in areas with heavy human use. Instead, many managers use controlled hunts to reduce deer abundance. We studied the efficacy of a two-day controlled shotgun hunt on Fair Hill Natural Resource Management Area, Cecil County, Maryland. Deer density was 48 deer/km2, adult sex ratio was 5.3 does/buck (SE = 1.45), and fawn-doe ratio was...

Year
2007

Efficacy of Herbicides to Control Bermudagrass for Enhancement of Northern Bobwhite Habitat

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) provides unsuitable vegetative structure for northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) by out-competing native vegetation, impeding foraging and movement of bobwhite chicks, and increasing heat loads. During 2000-2002, we examined the efficacy of four herbicides (three grass-selective translocated herbicides [GSH]; Clethodim, Fluazifop/Fenoxaprop, and Quizalofop; and one non-selective translocated herbicide: Imazapyr) for bermudagrass control in burned and unburned experiments in a field on River Bend Wildlife Management Area, Laurens County, Georgia....

Year
2005

Delineating Age and Species of Harvested Cottontail and Swamp Rabbits

Age structure of harvested populations is important to wildlife biologists to adequately observe effects of harvest and management regimes. We aged harvested cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and swamp (S. aquaticus) rabbits by eye lens weight. We developed 2 logistic regression equations based on external morphometrics (mass [N=213] and hind foot length [N=209]) to predict age and species. Our model used to delineate species had high correct classification rates (>89%). Hind foot length and mass were significant predictors of age class for both species and correct classification rates...

Year
2000

Effects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker Management on Vegetative Composition and Structure and Subsequent Impacts on Game Species

To facilitate recovery of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW), management priorities and practices on >800,000 ha of Forest Service land in the Southeastern United States have been realigned to restore the pine-grassland system to which the RCW is adapted. Management regimes for RCW involve fire and mechanical suppression of hardwood understory and midstory. As such, RCW management practices might be expected to alter plant communities and associated wildlife populations. We examined differences in vegetation composition and structure between mature pine stands managed for red-...

Year
1999

Effect of Harvest on Previously Unexploited Populations of Fox and Gray Squirrels

Effect of exploitation on sympatric southern squirrel populations has not been documented. Additionally, opportunities to study effects of harvest on unexploited populations are rare. Consequently, we investigated the effect of exploitation on a previously unharvested population of fox (Sciurus niger) and gray squirrels (S. carolinensis) on Twin Oaks Wildlife Management Area, Mississippi, from 1993-1998. We annually collected age, body morphometrics, color, sex, and species composition of harvested squirrels at voluntary check stations. A population decrease was documented for both species...

Year
1999

Fawn Survival on Davis Island, Mississippi, After an Early Summer Flood

We studied fawn survival during 1995 on Davis Island, Mississippi, an island in the Mississippi River. Newborn fawns were captured using line searches or vaginal implant transmitters. We captured 20 fawns with 8 surviving to 6 months. Cause of fawn mortality included coyotes (3) and natural mortality (2). Additionally, six fawns lost their transmitters and one transmitter failed. Overall survival rate of fawns to 180 days was 0.72. Male and female survival to 180 days was 0.66 and 0.78 respectively. Our results suggest fawn survival is not adversely affected by early summer flooding.

Year
1998

Comparison of the Camera Estimate to Program CAPTURE to Estimate Antlered White-tailed Deer Populations

We used infrared-triggered cameras to estimate white-tailed deer population size. The camera estimate simplifies analysis of photographs obtained from these cameras and provides an estimate similar to that generated using the models with program CAPTURE. Four surveys of an enclosed property in northeastern Mississippi generated counts of 16, 31, 40, and 14 antlered white-tailed deer using the camera estimate at different camera densities and at different time periods. Indentifying individuals by antler characteristics and analyzing the data using program CAPTURE estimated the population of...

Year
1997

Effects of Early-Weaning on Captive White-tailed Deer Fawns

The welfare of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns orphaned during an early doe harvest is of management interest when the hunting and fawning seasons are temporally close. A 2-year study on early-weaned, captive white-tailed deer fawns was conducted to evaluate potential effects of early orphaning on growth and survival. Comparisons were made between survival of 60-day-old weaned fawns (TV = 28), 90-day-old weaned fawns (N = 21), and control fawns left with their does (N = 21). No significant differences were found between survival rates in 1994 (P = 0.68) and 1995 (P = 1.00...

Year
1996

An Evaluation of Two Censusing Techniques to Estimate Black Bear Population Size on White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

Expansion of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population outside White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, has caused local citizens to request reduction of the population. An estimate of black bear population size is necessary before any management recommendations can be made. We used 2 census methods to estimate population size. Hunter surveys of bear sightings during the 2-day firearm deer hunt were used in 1994 to estimate population size with a Petersen-Lincoln estimator. The survey yielded a population estimate of 213 bears (95% CI = 129-297). We used cameras triggered by...

Year
1996