J. C. Kroll

Warm Season Supplemental Forages for White-tailed Deer in the Pineywoods of East Texas

Supplemental forage plantings for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been aimed primarily at the winter stress period with little or no consideration to supplementing the summer diet. Consequently, there is little information concerning the efficacy of summer plantings. A total of 14 summer cultivated forages was evaluated using 4 criteria: 1) productivity, 2) availability during stress periods, 3) utilization and acceptance by deer, and 4) nutritional quality. Warm-season forages performing best were alyceclover, iron and clay cowpea, catjang cowpea, American jointvetch, and...


Wood Duck Nest Site Selection in Eastern Texas

Nest box use, nesting success, and nesting habitat characteristics were examined on 6 study areas in eastern Texas during 1984-85. Box use averaged 29% and nesting success decreased from 82% to 64% over the 2-year study. Nest box characteristics selected by wood ducks (Ab: sponsa) included a lower clear tree bole, orientation of the hole toward open or vegetated water, and proximity of 1 or more additional nest boxes. Habitat characteristics selected included high visibility of the box, closeness to open water, less canopy closure (%), presence of herbaceous marsh within 1 km, and presence...