Three female red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were translocated and released separately into 2 colonies with resident bachelor males in April 1986. Two females paired with resident males at their release site. One pair fledged young in 1986, and both pairs fledged young in 1987. The translocation increased the local population from 1 to 3 pairs. Four nestling red-cockadeds were fostered in May 1987. All fostered young fledged. Flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) in all active colonies threatened introductions and nesting attempts. To reduce competition for cavities, flying squirrels were captured and removed from cavities and nest box traps installed on cavity trees in all active colonies. Results indicated that nest boxes have intercepted the majority of squirrels since August 1986, and thus may have reduced squirrel use of cavities.