Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies - Guide to Authors

Revised March 12, 2019

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Aims and Scope

The Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies presents papers that cover all aspects of the management and conservation of inland, estuarine, and marine fisheries and wildlife. It aims to provide a forum where fisheries and wildlife managers can find innovative solutions to the problems facing our natural resources in the 21st century. The Journal welcomes manuscripts that cover scientific studies, case studies, and review articles on a wide range of topics of interest and use to fish and wildlife managers, with an emphasis on the southeastern U.S.

Manuscript Submission

For initial submission and revisions, submit an electronic copy in MS Word format via e-mail to the appropriate associate editor.  Manuscript must not exceed 30 pages (approximately 6,000 words) including literature cited, tables, and figures. Pa- pers will be peer-reviewed for scientific merit and their contribution to the advancement of wildlife and fisheries science.

Manuscript Preparation

Assemble manuscripts in this order:

  1. Title page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Study area
  5. Methods
  6. Results
  7. Discussion
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Literature cited
  10. Tables
  11. Figure captions
  12. Figures


Manuscript Format

The following format conventions apply:

  1. Double-space all material.
  2. Paper size = 8.5 × 11 inches; 1-inch margins on all sides.
  3. Use Times New Roman font with 12-point type size.
  4. Use left justification and turn off hyphenation.
  5. Use the two-letter postal code ONLY for state abbreviations in complete addresses on the title page; in ALL other cases, spell out the names of states.
  6. Do not use more than three levels of headings. The style for headings is illustrated below:
    MAIN HEADINGS (METHODS, etc. All caps, left-justified)
    Second Level (note capitalization, left-justified)
         Third Level (note italics, capitalization, indent)
  7. Keep footnotes to a minimum. Place footnotes at the bottom of the page of the original reference. Footnote disclaimers of product endorsement.
  8. Use italicized font for all text that needs to be italicized, including mathematical symbols and scientific names. Do not use italics or all caps to emphasize points in text.
  9. Place scientific names in parentheses after the first use in both the abstract and full text. Do not include the naming authority. Common names should be lowercase unless they begin a sentence or are proper names (e.g., American shad, bobwhite quail). After presenting the scientific name, use common names only for the rest of the manuscript.
  10. All acronyms must be spelled out upon first use, including well-known organizations (e.g., USFWS, NOAA, USDA, EPA, FAO).
  11. Spell out numbers less than 10 unless they are used with units of measure or compared with another number (e.g., three fish, 5 mm, 2 catfish, and 20 largemouth bass). Use numerals for numbers that are less than one or that have two or more digits (e.g., 0.8 cm, 22 poles). Use commas in numbers of five digits or higher (e.g., 25,000) but not for numbers of four digits (e.g., 3500). Use 0 before all decimals (e.g., 0.05).
  12. Age organisms in Arabic, not Roman numerals (e.g., age 2 not age II). Use hyphens when age is used as an adjective (e.g., age-2 fish) but not as a noun (fish was age 2).
  13. Insert one space on both sides of symbols when used as conjunctions (e.g., n = 50) but not as adjectives (e.g., <50 individuals).
  14. Use a 24-hour clock for time (1500 hours not 3:00pm). Spell out “hours” when used with time, otherwise, abbreviate as noted in Table 1. Calendar dates should be written as day-month-year (e.g., 24 January 2003); if no year is needed, then day-month. Seasons are lower case (e.g., spring 2007).

  15. Use metric units of measure. For compound denominators, use negative exponents and spaces (e.g., 0.34 m3 sec-1, 9 ml L-1, 0.28 mg L-1 h-1).

  16. Specify the national currency used the first time it is presented (e.g., US$195, Can$200).

Table 1. Abbreviations and symbols commonly used in text, tables, and figures in the Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies.


Abbreviation or Symbol


Abbreviation or Symbol



lethal concentration, median


Analysis of Covariance


lethal dose, median


Analysis of Variance


less than




less than/equal to







logarithm, base e

Ln/ loge

coefficient of correlation

logarithm, base 10










coefficient of determination,











coefficient of variation








confidence limits






parts per billion




parts per million


degrees Celsius


parts per thousand


degrees of freedom








diameter breast height


sample size








standard deviation


greater than


standard error


greater than/ equal to

Student’s t




total length














least significant difference




Title Page

The name of the corresponding author, the author’s full address, phone number, and e-mail address – all on separate lines

– should appear in the upper left-hand corner of the title page i.e., text is left-justified). Skip a line and then provide a short running title consisting of 40 to 50 letters, one space, a period, another single space, and then the author name(s), italicized in one of the following three styles: Jones, Jones and Smith, or Jones et al. (e.g., Bass Feeding Rates in Ponds . Jones et al.). The title, written to accurately convey the content of the paper, follows on the next line of text. The title should not contain scientific names. Both the running head and title should be written in title case, capitalizing principal words. Next, list each author, beginning with the primary author, and provide the following information about each: name of organization and the complete address of organization including zip code, with all of the text other than author name italicized. Type each author and address using continuous text (i.e., address information not on separate lines). Each author should be listed separately even if they work at the same organization. Information about authors who have had a change of address since the time of the study should be footnoted at the bottom of the title page.


The abstract immediately follows the list of authors (no need to start on a new page). . It should include the italicized heading “Abstract:” at the beginning of the section, placed flush with the left margin. The abstract should be a single paragraph of not more than 300 words and concisely summarize the paper. The abstract should not merely list the contents of the paper nor should it contain a review of the methods. It should not contain literature citations or footnotes

After the abstract paragraph, place four or five keywords flush left with the left margin using the following format:

Keywords: manuscript, style, editing, Journal

Note that good keywords should not appear in the title of the manuscript. After the keywords, place flush with the right margin the following reference caption:

Journal of the Southeast. Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies: –

Immediately following the reference caption, a single line should be typed across the page to separate it and previous material from the body of the manuscript.


The introduction section has no heading and should establish the importance and purpose of the work. Included in the introduction is a demonstration of the author’s awareness of the most pertinent literature, including review articles. The introduction should end with a justification for the study and clearly stated study objectives.

Study Area

If the technical paper needs a detailed site description, provide it in this separate section of the manuscript before the methods. If only a few sentences are needed to locate and describe the study site, include them as a subsection of the methods section. Do not include a figure of the study site unless it is essential to the study design. If a study map is included, please ensure it can still convey needed information when printed in black and white (i.e., using colored symbols or lines that are essential for comprehension should be avoided).


Methods need to explain the experimental design in enough detail for the reader to evaluate the data or repeat the study. This is often the most lacking area of manuscripts. It is better to be overly explicit than to omit details needed by the reader. At a minimum, include the month(s) and year(s) when the study occurred. Avoid vague or dated phrases such as “during the last two years.” Previously published descriptions of equipment and procedures may be cited by reference unless they are in theses, dissertations, agency reports, or other sources with limited availability. Statistical analysis should be explained here in detail. State the significance level used (e.g., P ≤ 0.05). Complex experimental protocols can be presented in a table or figure. When appropriate, always reference the approved Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocol number and any permits issued by federal or state agencies (e.g., collection permit).


This section should be separated from the discussion section. When results are presented in tables or figures, summary statements and analyses are sufficient. Display data in tables if precision is needed and in figures if describing trends. Long lists of raw data are not needed. Basic data should be analyzed so the reader can verify the analysis or use the information for other purposes. A P ≤ 0.05 is standard but not required as a significance level, as long as the author justifies or explains the reasons behind smaller or larger significance levels. Statistical results should be presented inside parentheses with degrees of freedom in the same font as the other results but not italicized (e.g., F = 3.45, df = 3, 45; P = 0.03). Statistical results of multiple comparisons of the same variables may be grouped together using a range of test statistics and P values (e.g., “weight was greater in Lake A than in Lake B for all species [F range = 2.34 to 4.56; P ≤ 0.03]). Do not forget to italicize all test statistics and P!


A good discussion section should enhance the value of a paper. The discussion should relate what has been learned from the study to what was known before. This may include creating new syntheses, searching for generalities, or establishing new principles. The discussion section should not simply restate the results with a brief literature survey. Strong discussions will not involve unfounded speculation, redundancy, or wordiness. Literature by other authors should be cited carefully and accurately. Management recommendations or implications from the study are an essential part of any discussion, given the intended scope of this journal. They may be included here as a subsection or, if they are substantial, may follow as a separate section.


This section should acknowledge only people and institutions that contributed directly to the study or reviewed the manuscript. Note here grant numbers and other financial contributions.

Literature Cited

Do not use citations that are progress reports, unpublished papers, abstracts from conferences, or manuscripts under review or in preparation (i.e., submitted but not yet accepted). Dissertations, theses, final reports and government documents should be used rarely since they have limited outside reviews and circulation. If unpublished data or personal communication must be cited, place this citation within the text of the paper (not the Literature Cited section) in parentheses directly following the mention of the information giving initials, surname, and affiliation only of the person providing the information (e.g., A. Z. Smith, Institute for Fisheries Research, personal communication).

Literature cited in the manuscript can take either of two forms, depending on the context. When multiple references are given, they should always be listed in chronological order. Note the following examples:

Largemouth bass occur in White Reservoir (Smith 1990, Clark and Jones 1992, Davis et al. 1998, Wood in press).

Kilgo et al. (1998) found that behavior of white-tailed deer had implications for the conservation of the Florida panther.

Within the manuscript, cite both of two authors; for three or more authors, provide the name of the first author and “et al.” (e.g., Warren et al.). Note that lists of citations in the text are separated by commas, not semi-colons.

The full names of well-known organizations (e.g., USFWS, NOAA, USDA, EPA, FAO) must be provided in the Literature Cited section, even if they have been abbreviated in the text. In- text citation of the SAS statistical program is SAS Institute followed by the year (e.g., SAS Institute 2004).

The following rules apply for citations in the Literature Cited section (note that specific examples of reference format are provided in numbers 11–17 below.):

  1. Do not abbreviate in the references. Periods separate the author list, date, title, journal name, editors, book titles, etc., and should be followed by one space, not two.
  2. Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns in the titles of journal or book articles.
  3. Substitute the words “in press” only for the date of publication if a paper has been accepted for publication but is not yet in published form.
  4. List publications in alphabetical order according to the last name of the first author or by the first word of corporate authors.
  5. When two authors have the same last name, list by alphabetical order according to the initials of the first author. Note that the initials of all authors are separated by a space (e.g., A. G. Ever- sole, not A.G. Eversole).
  6. When the first author of more than one reference is the same, list by alphabetical order according to the last names of coauthors, beginning with the second.
  7. List multiple references by the same author(s) chronologically by year of publication.
  8. Differentiate papers by the same author(s) in the same year by lowercase letters after the year (McDonald 1983a, 1983b).
  9. Citations with seven or more authors may be listed by the name of the first author “et al.”, at the author’s option.
  10. References to SEAFWA’s Proceedings from 1975 to 2012 (30th–66th annual conferences) should be: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. References to earlier Proceedings should be: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Reference to the journal from 2013 to the present should be: Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. In all cases, volume number should be the number of the proceedings (i.e., 1 to 66) or the number of the journal (1 to present). No issue number should be given.
  11. Articles in journals and other periodicals should contain all of the following information when available: author(s), year of publication, title, volume, issue, and inclusive pages. Issue should only be given if each issue of a volume starts over at page 1 for that journal. Note there is no space between volume and page numbers. Also, note that a comma follows the first author when there are three or more authors but not when there are only two.

    Kilgo, J. C., R. F. Labisky, and D. E. Fritzen. 1998. Influences on the behavior of white-tailed deer: implications for conservation of the Florida panther. Conservation Biology 12:1359-1364.

    Michaletz, P. and J. Dillard. 1999. A survey of catfish management in the United States and Canada. Fisheries 24(8):6-11.

  12. Book citations should contain all of the following information when available: author(s), year of publication, title, edition (if other than first), volume (if part of a series), publisher, city, state, province, and country (if other than the United States). Only the first word of book titles should be capitalized unless they contain a proper noun. Omit the number of pages. “SAS” is one exception to the rule of spelling out acronyms in the literature cited section.

    SAS Institute. 2004. SAS user’s guide: statistics, version 9.2 edition. SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, North Carolina.

    R Core Team. 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

    Tiersch, T. R. and P. M. Mazik, editors. 2000. Cryopreservation in aquatic species. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

  13. A citation taken from an article in a book (including special publications, symposia, and monographs) should contain all of the following information when available: author(s), year of publication, title, inclusive pages, editor(s), book title, publisher, series name, city, state, province, and country (if other than the United States). As above, only the first word of the book title should be capitalized unless it contains a proper noun. Include any other important identifying data. When available, identify conference proceedings by year of publication, not by year of the meeting. Give publisher’s name and location (e.g., where the proceedings may be obtained, not the location of the meeting.)

    Diana, M. J. and D. H. Wahl. 2008. Long-term stocking success of largemouth bass and the relationship to natural populations. Pages 413-426 in M. S. Allen, S. Sammons, and

    M. J. Maceina, editors. Balancing fisheries management and water uses for impounded river systems. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 62, Bethesda, Maryland.

    Ritchie, M. E. 1997. Population dynamics in a landscape context: sources, sinks, and metapopulations. Pages 160–184 in J. A. Bissonette, editor. Wildlife and landscape ecology -- effects of pattern and scale. Springer, New York, New York.

  14. A citation of a dissertation or thesis should include all of the following information when available: author, year, title, whether doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, university, city, state, province, and country. There is no need to repeat the name of the state if it is already provided within the name of the university.

    Hartman, K. J. 1993. Striped bass, bluefish and weakfish in the Chesapeake Bay: energetics, trophic linkages, and bioenergetics model applications. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

    Sullivan, J. 2016. Movement of female white-tailed deer relative to conception and localized risk. Master’s Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.

  15. A citation of a government publication should include all of the following information when available: author(s) or agency, year of publication, title, agency, type and number of publication, city, state, province, or country.

    Thomas, C. and K. Dockendorf. 2009. Contribution of stocked largemouth bass following hurricane-induced fish kills in two North Carolina coastal rivers. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Project F-22 Final Report, Raleigh, USA.

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). 1987. Water resources data for Massachusetts and Rhode Island, water year 1985. USGS Water-Data Report MA-RI-85-1, Washington, D.C., USA.

  16. A citation of a contract report should include all of the follow- ing information when available: author(s), year of publication, title, organization that issued the report, the organization that received the report, receiver’s city, state, province, and country.

    Smith, A. G. 1986. Turbine-induced fish mortality at Highrise Dam, 1985. Report of Robertson Consultants to Prairie Utilities, Jonesville, Alberta, Canada.

  17. Do not cite the internet when hard copy publications of the same information are available. When an internet citation is necessary, the date of publication used should be the date the site was accessed. When the citation of an internet page is un-avoidable it should include all of the following information when available: author(s) or agency, date the page was ac- cessed, title of the page, publisher of the page, and a complete URL for the specific page accessed.

    Hood, G. M. 2010. PopTools version 3.2.5. <http://www.pop->. Accessed 6 September 2016.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2016. National Centers for Environmental Information, Climate at a Glance: U.S. Time Series, Palmer Z-Index.

    NOAA. <>. Accessed on 8 September 2016.

    National Wildlife Federation (NWF). 2003. National Wildlife Federation and Junior Master Gardeners bring the wonders of gardening for wildlife to America’s youth. NWF. <www.nwf. org/schoolyardhabitats/wildlifegardener.cfm>. Accessed 4 November 2009.

The following demonstrates proper ordering of references from the same first author in the Literature Cited section:

Maceina, M. J. 1997. Simple application of using residual from catch-curve regressions to assess year-class strength in fish. Fisheries Research 32:115-121.

Maceina, M. J., J. Boxrucker, D. L. Buckmeier, R. S. Gangl, D.

O. Lucchesi, D. A. Isermann, J. R. Jackson, and P. J. Mar- tinez. 2007. Current status and review of freshwater fish aging procedures used by state and provincial fisheries agencies with recommendations for future directions. Fisheries 32:329-340.

Maceina, M. J., O. Ozen, M. S. Allen., and S. M. Smith. 1998. Use of equilibrium yield models to evaluate length limits for crappies in Weiss Lake, Alabama. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 18:854–863.

Maceina, M. J., and M. C. Stimpert. 1998. Relations between reservoir hydrology and crappie recruitment in Alabama. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 18:104– 113.


Tables need to be organized to express the most information in the least amount of space. Do not reduce type size for tables; continue on another page if needed. In the column and row headings, capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and appropriate symbols. Use only three horizontal lines across the table: one at the top, one following the column headings, and one at the bottom of the table. Shorter horizontal lines occasionally may be used to further subdivide column headings. Vertical lines are never used. Captions should stand alone and identify all headings that are unclear. Identify nonstandard symbols and abbreviations in the table caption. If footnotes are necessary use lowercase alphabetic superscripts for footnotes. List footnotes below the table. Spell out the word “Table” when referenced in the text (i.e., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). All tables should be created using the Table function in Word and never pasted in as an image or object file.

Figure captions

List all figure captions sequentially on one page. These captions should stand alone and identify all legend symbols on the figures.


Figures must be clear, high-quality, and the appropriate font size and line weight. For initial submission, figures may be embedded in Word files for easier dissemination to reviewers. Upon final acceptance, figures must be submitted as separate files in .tif or .jpg, format, and they must be high resolution (300 dpi minimum). On figures, x- and y-axes must be clearly labeled with appropriate units given. Place the y-axis label sideways to read from bottom to top. Figures will need to be reduced to fit in the Journal; therefore, use type of at least 18 point. Keep graphics simple and uncluttered. When figures are reduced, symbols and shading can look alike, and dashed and dotted lines can appear continuous. Choose symbols and lines that keep their clarity and contrast when reduced. Use three-dimensional charts and shading sparingly, and if using color ensure that the graph can still be interpretable when printed in black and white. Keep blank spaces to a minimum by placing labels of graphs near axes, legends, etc., as close within the figure as possible. Try to minimize the number of figures by combining them in multiple–panel graphs when practical. A good indication this may be preferable is when multiple graphs have the same x-axis. Spell out the word “Figure” when referenced in the text (i.e., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).

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