Reservoir tailwaters can be an important resource for developing quality trout fisheries, especially when managed with special regulations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 508-mm minimum-length limit and a 1 fish day-1 creel limit on increasing abundance and size of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Cumberland River below Lake Cumberland, Kentucky. Annual stockings of catchable-sized brown trout remained relatively stable throughout the study at approximately 31,000 fish (503 fish km-1). The purpose of the new regulations, which did not include gear or bait restrictions, was to increase the numbers of quality (381-507 mm total length [TL]) and trophy-size (≥508 mm TL) brown trout in the 121-km tailwater. A significant increase in brown trout electrofishing catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was observed across years for small (< 381 mm TL), quality, trophy-size, and all sizes combined brown trout. The trophy regulations resulted in an increase in CPUE of all sizes of brown trout, including trophy-size, in the tailwater without any observed negative density-dependent impacts to brown trout growth or condition. Creel surveys showed that the management objectives of doubling the brown trout size structure of ≥381 mm TL and ≥508 mm TL in the angler catch were more than exceeded. Annual reservoir discharge was positively related with warmer water temperatures and lower dissolved oxygen in the tailwater. There was a negative relationship between both brown trout growth and condition versus annual discharge from the reservoir.