In 1997, a statewide inventory in Mississippi estimated the number and area of beaver (Castor canadensis) impoundments ≥0.4 ha in size. Data were compared with an identical survey performed in 1977. Number and area of impoundments in 1997 (1,783 and 11,728 ha, respectively) decreased from 1977 (2,739 and 28,768 ha, respectively). Landowners were mailed a questionnaire concerning the effectiveness of various methods for killing and disposing of beavers. Beaver meat and pelts were discarded by 87.8% of the landowners. Of the 9,332 beaver known to be killed in 1996 statewide, 67% were killed by USDA Wildlife Services personnel. Only 16% and 18% of landowners, respectively, fished their impoundments or managed them for waterfowl.