Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) numbers declined precipitously and the species was on the verge of extinction by 1971 when the population fell to 19 birds, leaving only 16 remaining in the wild. An extensive study of the species was undertaken in 1968 and intensive wild and captive management was initiated. Both wild and captive populations have fluctuated but have demonstrated a trend toward moderately increasing numbers over the ensuing 25 years. This recovery and the role and potential of the captive breeding strategy for enhancing the recovery of this species is addressed. The Rio Abajo Aviary, established in 1990 as a second captive breeding site, is examined with a look toward the future of the captive program and the Puerto Rican parrot.