Black bear (Ursus americanus) mortality data were collected in eastern North Carolina from 1976 to 1992. These data included registered harvest totals from mandatory hunter-harvest records, field reports, and tooth samples from bears dying of all causes (N = 1,107 for harvest; N = 350 for vehicle-kill). Increasing trends in harvest corresponded to establishment of seasons in 11 counties beginning in 1986. Vehicle-kills increased until 1990 but declined during 1991-92. Combined age structures did not differ significantly from the 1976-1985 period (before new seasons established) to the 1986-91 period (after new seasons established). Harvest age structures differed significantly from age structures of vehicle-kill. Bears <4 years old composed 56.2% of the harvest and 70.0% of vehicle-kills during the entire study period. Subadult males (1- and 2-year old classes) composed the largest portion of both harvest (28.8%) and vehicle-kill (32.3%). Harvest age structures did not change significantly between time periods whereas the vehicle-kill age structure did. A shift to younger age classes in vehicle-kills may be related to increased productivity. The age structures of males differed significantly from the age structures of females for both harvest and vehicle-kills. Percent males in the harvest (59.7%) and vehicle-kill (64.2%) differed significantly from parity whereas depredation (65.4%) and illegal kill (54.8%) sex ratios did not. Peak vehicle-kills occurred from June to December. Efforts should be focused on reducing vehicle-kills during the fall because this is the period when the highest average number of females are killed.