Bird Kills in Contained Oil: A Biopolitical/ Enforcement Strategy

Extensive bird mortality was documented from oil contained in pits and opentopped tanks in New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Annual mortality easily exceeded 300,000 birds including 100,000 ducks. An enforcement strategy was developed that included negotiations with state oil regulating agencies, seminars presented to oil industry associations, a news media campaign, and criminal and civil enforcement actions initiated at the state and federal level.

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