The tailwater fisheries of Lake of the Ozarks and Pomme de Terre Lake were measured by a part-time roving creel survey from 1965 through 1974. Catch rates of fishes were compared with temperature, conductivity and dissolved oxygen, but no significant correlations were found. However, high positive correlations existed at Lake of the Ozarks tailwater between annual average catch rates and the annual average discharge of water, and also between preceding mean monthly discharges and following monthly catch rates. There was also a high positive correlation between estimated number of fishes caught in this tailwater and the number of days per year that the flood gates were open. At Pomme de Terre tailwater, there was a high positive correlation between discharge and catch rate for monthly, seasonal, and annual periods. Anglers at the Lake of the Ozarks tailwater had short periods of outstanding angling, longer periods of good fishing and intermittent periods of poor fishing, while anglers at Pomme de Terre tailwater had shorter periods of good success and much longer periods of poor fishing. Manipulation of discharges might prolong and enhance fishing success below dams. Structures that cause deepening of tailwater pools and induce water current eddies would also benefit angler success.